The Indian Analyst
 

South Indian Inscriptions

 

 

Contents

Introduction

Preface

Contents

List of Plates

Abbreviations

Additions And Corrections

Images

Miscellaneous

Inscriptions And Translations

Kalachuri Chedi Era

Abhiras

Traikutakas

Early Kalachuris of Mahishmati

Early Gurjaras

Kalachuri of Tripuri

Kalachuri of Sarayupara

Kalachuri of South Kosala

Sendrakas of Gujarat

Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Dynasty of Harischandra

Administration

Religion

Society

Economic Condition

Literature

Coins

Genealogical Tables

Texts And Translations

Incriptions of The Abhiras

Inscriptions of The Maharajas of Valkha

Incriptions of The Mahishmati

Inscriptions of The Traikutakas

Incriptions of The Sangamasimha

Incriptions of The Early Kalcahuris

Incriptions of The Early Gurjaras

Incriptions of The Sendrakas

Incriptions of The Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Incriptions of The Dynasty of The Harischandra

Incriptions of The Kalachuris of Tripuri

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Vol. 4 - 8

Volume 9

Volume 10

Volume 11

Volume 12

Volume 13

Volume 14

Volume 15

Volume 16

Volume 17

Volume 18

Volume 19

Volume 20

Volume 22
Part 1

Volume 22
Part 2

Volume 23

Volume 24

Volume 26

Volume 27

Tiruvarur

Darasuram

Konerirajapuram

Tanjavur

Annual Reports 1935-1944

Annual Reports 1945- 1947

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 2, Part 2

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Volume 7, Part 3

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 1

Kalachuri-Chedi Era Part 2

Epigraphica Indica

Epigraphia Indica Volume 3

Epigraphia
Indica Volume 4

Epigraphia Indica Volume 6

Epigraphia Indica Volume 7

Epigraphia Indica Volume 8

Epigraphia Indica Volume 27

Epigraphia Indica Volume 29

Epigraphia Indica Volume 30

Epigraphia Indica Volume 31

Epigraphia Indica Volume 32

Paramaras Volume 7, Part 2

Śilāhāras Volume 6, Part 2

Vākāṭakas Volume 5

Early Gupta Inscriptions

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Pudukkottai

EARLY KALACHURIS OF MAHISHMATI

The mention of the Ārjunāyanas in the list of frontier tribes who submitted to Samudragupta1 has been taken by some2 to refer to the Kalachuris who trace their descent from Arjuna, the son of Kritavīya. The Ārjunāyanas were indeed an ancient tribe. Their coins bearing the tribal name in Sanskrit are known in several varieties and on the evidence of palæography are ascribed to 100 B.C. Prof.Rapson dates their rise as a political community as early as the fourth century B. C.3 They are included in the rājayādi gana (mentioned in Pānini, IV, 2, 53), which shows that their country was called Ārjunāyaka. Varāhamihira places them in the northern division, and the provenance of their coins indicates that their homeland lay within the triangle Delhi-Jaipur-Āgrā.4 This shows, however, that they were distinct from the Kalachuri who dwelt in the valley of the Narmadā. Besides according to the Kāśīkā-5 on Pānini, II, 4, 66, the Ārjunāyanas were the descendants of Arjuna who belonged to the Bhārata clan, and were, therefore, different from the Kalachuris who claimed their descent from Arjuna, the son of Kritavīrya.

Though the Early Kalachuris do not call themselves Haihayas in their grants, they soon came to be referred to by that name; for we learn from some inscriptions of the Early Chālukyas that Vinayāditya, the son of Vikramāditya I (680-697 A. C.), subjugated the Haihayas,6 Vikramāditya II (733-747 A.C.) married two Haihaya princesses, Lōkamahādēvī and her younger sister Trailōkyamahādēvī.7 The Eastern Chālukya prince Vishnuvardhana IV (764-799 A.C.) similarly espoused a princess of the Haihaya lineage whose son Nriparudra is mentioned as Dūtaka in a grant of Vijayāditya II.8 These Haihayas were evidently identical with the Early Kalachuris.

It is not known whether the Early Kalachuris were descended from Mahārāja Subandhu who ruled from Māhishmatī in an earlier age; for there is a long period of nearly 150 years which separates them and for which no records have yet been discovered. The Early Kalachuris rose into prominence on the downfall of the Traikūtakas dynasty. After the year 245 of the Kanhēri plate9 incised during the sovereignty of the Traikūtakas, the next known date of the Kalachuri era is the year 292 furnished by the Sunao Kala grant of Sangamasimha.10 He seems to have come to power after the Traikūtakas; for the phraseology of the formal part of his grant bears close resemblance to that of the Traikūtakas records, especially the Surat plates of Vyāghrasēna.11 Sangamasimha issued the plates from Bharukachchha. Śōnavvā, the village granted by him, is only two miles north of the Kīm and 18 miles north of Surat. It is, therefore, not unlikely that Sangamasimha had under his sway some territory which was previously included in the Traikūtaka kingdom. But Sangamasimha, though he calls himself Mahārāja, was in reality a Mahāsāmanta (i.e., a great feudatory) of some other power. The only powerful contemporary dynasty to which he may have owed allegiance was that of the Kalachuris. We have unfortunately no records of the Early Kalachuris who were the real founders of the Kalachuri Empire of the sixth century A.C. The earliest dated record of the Kalachuris is Sankara-
________________
1 C.I.I., Vol. III, p. 8.
2 Ibid., Introd., p. 10.
3 C.H.I., Vol, I, p. 528.
4 A.C.A.I., p. lxxxii ff.
5 Patanjali in his Mahābhashya gives a different illustration (viz., Auddālakāyana) to explain the rule.
6 Ind. Ant., Vol. VI, pp. 91 ff. and Vol. VII, p. 302.
7 Ep. Ind., Vol. III, p. 3.
8 Ind. Ant., Vol. XX, p. 415.
9 No. 10.
10 No. 11.
11See below, p. 34.

 

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