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What Is India News Service
Tuesday, June 14, 2011


The Indian Analyst


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 
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Contents

Introduction

Preface

Contents

List of Plates

Abbreviations

Additions And Corrections

Images

Miscellaneous

Inscriptions And Translations

Kalachuri Chedi Era

Abhiras

Traikutakas

Early Kalachuris of Mahishmati

Early Gurjaras

Kalachuri of Tripuri

Kalachuri of Sarayupara

Kalachuri of South Kosala

Sendrakas of Gujarat

Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Dynasty of Harischandra

Administration

Religion

Society

Economic Condition

Literature

Coins

Genealogical Tables

Texts And Translations

Incriptions of The Abhiras

Inscriptions of The Maharajas of Valkha

Incriptions of The Mahishmati

Inscriptions of The Traikutakas

Incriptions of The Sangamasimha

Incriptions of The Early Kalcahuris

Incriptions of The Early Gurjaras

Incriptions of The Sendrakas

Incriptions of The Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Incriptions of The Dynasty of The Harischandra

Incriptions of The Kalachuris of Tripuri

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume I

Volume II

Volume III

Vol. IV - VIII

Volume IX

Volume X

Volume XI

Volume XII

Volume XIII

Volume XIV

Volume XV

Volume XVI

Volume XVII

Volume XVIII

Volume XIX

Volume XX

Volume XXII_Part I

Volume XXII_Part II

Tanjavur

Tiruvarur

Volume XXIII

Volume XXIV

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Sudharsanam

Pudukkottai

ECONOMIC CONDITION

inscriptions.1 The Karanikas mentioned in some records2 were not different from the Kāyasthas.

Some lower castes like Sūtradhāra occasionally find a mention in our records.3 Of the untouchables, the Mōchī or shoe-maker is mentioned in a late record.4 Dēvapāla who belonged to this caste was a religious-minded person. He was rich enough to construct a temple of Narayana at Khalvatika, modern Khalari in the Raipur District.

Women were honoured and treated with respect. Polygamy was in vogue. Kings generally maintained a large seraglio. From inscriptions as well as from literature5 We know that Yuvarājadeva I married a large number of princesses from different countries. Gāńgēyadēva is said to have had as many as a hundred wives.6. The custom of the sati was in vogue. If the description in the Khairhā and Jabalpur plates is correct, all the hundred wives of Gāngēyadeva immolated themselves on his funeral pyre near the banyan tree at Prayaga. Another instance of the Sati is recorded in the Shēorinārāyan inscription of K. 919. When the prince Ulhanadēva died fighting with Jayasimha of Tripuri, his three queens died as Satis.7 The inscription describes vividly the grief which the people felt on that occasion. Such self-immolation was, however, not obligatory on women. Those who did not subject themselves to it led a restrained and pious life. We know of some queens who survived their husbands and helped their sons with advice in the administration of the State. The dowager queens Alhanadevi and Gōsaladēvi are notable instances of this type mentioned in our records.811

That the joint family system was in vogue appears clear from the numbers of realatives mentioned in commemorative prasastis, The Ratanpur inscription dated V. 1207, for instance, mentions, besides the Kayastha Ratnasimha, his wife, one son, two daughters-in-law, two grandsons, one grand-daughter and two other persons whose realation to him is not stated explicitly.9 Another instance is that of Purushōttama, the Sarvādhikārin of Ratnadēva II. He lived to a good old age. His four sons, all of whom distinguished themselves in state craft, continued to live with him.10 On the other hand, we have an instance of the division of even state property. Sarvadeva, the brother or Prithvīdēva I, we are told, obtained, as a share of patrimony, the territory round sonthiva, where he later established himself. such partitions were, however, rare.

ECONOMIC CONDITION

In India from very ancient times trade and commerce have been carried on through guilds(srenis). The first inscription included in this Volume mentions four guilds, viz., those of potters, makers of hydraulic engines, and oil-millers, and one more whose name is lost. These guilds acted also as banks and received deposits of money, on which they stipulated to paya certain amount of interest in perpetuity. Piois persons deposited money _________________________

1Kirtidhara, his son Vatsarāja and grandson Dharmarāja who wrote several grants of the Kalachuris of Ratanpur belonged to the Vastavya famliy and were evidently kāyasthas.
2No. 45, 1. 33; No. 50, 1.49.
3No..64 1. 26;No. 105, 1.20 etc
4No. 108, 1. 10.
5See above p. lxxvii
6No. 56, 11. 10-11; No. 57, 1. 10
7No. 98, 1. 20.
8No. 60, 1. 23 and No. 69, 1. 1.
9No. 93, 11. 10 ff.
10No. 90, 1. 20

 

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