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What Is India News Service
Tuesday, June 14, 2011


The Indian Analyst


 

South Indian Inscriptions


 
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Contents

Introduction

Preface

Contents

List of Plates

Abbreviations

Additions And Corrections

Images

Miscellaneous

Inscriptions And Translations

Kalachuri Chedi Era

Abhiras

Traikutakas

Early Kalachuris of Mahishmati

Early Gurjaras

Kalachuri of Tripuri

Kalachuri of Sarayupara

Kalachuri of South Kosala

Sendrakas of Gujarat

Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Dynasty of Harischandra

Administration

Religion

Society

Economic Condition

Literature

Coins

Genealogical Tables

Texts And Translations

Incriptions of The Abhiras

Inscriptions of The Maharajas of Valkha

Incriptions of The Mahishmati

Inscriptions of The Traikutakas

Incriptions of The Sangamasimha

Incriptions of The Early Kalcahuris

Incriptions of The Early Gurjaras

Incriptions of The Sendrakas

Incriptions of The Early Chalukyas of Gujarat

Incriptions of The Dynasty of The Harischandra

Incriptions of The Kalachuris of Tripuri

Other South-Indian Inscriptions 

Volume I

Volume II

Volume III

Vol. IV - VIII

Volume IX

Volume X

Volume XI

Volume XII

Volume XIII

Volume XIV

Volume XV

Volume XVI

Volume XVII

Volume XVIII

Volume XIX

Volume XX

Volume XXII_Part I

Volume XXII_Part II

Tanjavur

Tiruvarur

Volume XXIII

Volume XXIV

Archaeological Links

Archaeological-Survey of India

Sudharsanam

Pudukkottai

LITERATURE

with fuel, and the temple where they assembled for prayers. These are mentioned in some grants in connection with the boundaries of the donated fields. The king was, no doubt, the owner of all marshy and barren land, woodland and jungles, pasture-lands, tanks and watering places. When he donated a village, he transferred his rights to the donee;1 but in practice, the village folk used these in common. The king was also the owner of the mines of minerals and salt, of the mango and mahuā trees, and also of the treasure trove.2 He had further the privileges of ditya and vishti.3 The former probably signified the obli-gations of the villagers to make customary presents on the birth of a prince or the marriage of a princess, and the latter, that of rendering occasional service free of charge. There were other miscellaneous royal privileges designated as prātibhēdīkā.4 Besides, the villa-gers were required to provide for the lodging and boarding of royal officers on tour.5 Sometimes a small cess was levied for the purpose. The donated villages were free from all these obligations. They could also adjudicate their own law-suits and levy fines for the commission of the ten crimes (daś-āparādhas).6 They could not also be entered by soldiers and policemen except for apprehending thieves and persons accused of high treason.

The towns were in a flourishing condition. In the Bālarāmāyana Rājaśekhara ascribes the origin of Tripurī, the capital of the Kalachuris, to the fall from the sky of a portion of the three cities of Tripurāsura burnt by Śiva.7 The description suggests the great magnificence of the capital which justified such a fancy. It is borne out by numerous beautiful sculptures and extensive remains of buildings discovered at Tewar. Tummāna, the earlier capital of a branch of the same family in Chhattisgarh, is said to have been beautified by Ratnadēva I with magnificent buildings, lofty temples of gods and beautiful groves of mango trees. Ratnapura, the later capital founded by the same prince, is said to have resembled the city of Alakā.8 The existing extensive ruins of buildings and temples and large tanks at both the places testify to the past splendour of the towns. Mallāla, Jājallanagara and Vikarnapura were some of the other places in Dakshina Kōsala, noted for their grandeur and prosperity.

As remarked in a private record at Mallār,9 the country was well governed, it was free from the infestation of troubles, and the people were happy under the rule of the Kalachuris.

LITERATURE

We have very meagre information about the literature of the earlier period. The only reference of a literary work occurring in the earlier inscriptions is that noticed in the Nasik plates of Dharāśraya-Jayasimha.10 His religious preceptor, who was an ascetic of the Śaiva sect, but whose full name has, unfortunately, not been preserved, wrote a Sanskrit play called Harapāravatiya. This work had not come down to us, but its title indicates that it treated of some incident in the life of Hara and Parvati, probably their marriage. This is _____________________

1 See, e.g., No. 50, 11. 38-39.
2 Loc. cit.
3 No. 16, 1. 34.
4 Loc. cit.
5 Some villages were exempted from these. See No. 32, 11. 33-34. See p. 156, n. 2.
6 No. 21, 1. 27; No. 22, 1. 28. See also p. 89, n. 3.
7 Bālarāmāyāna, Act III, v. 38.
8 No. 77, 11. 9-12.
9 No. 97, 11. 9-10.
10 No. 28, 11. 10-11.

 

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